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last (Function)

— Function: last list &optional n tail
Arguments and Values:

list—a list, which might be a dotted list but must not be a circular list.

n—a non-negative integer. The default is 1.

tail—an object.


last returns the last n conses (not the last n elements) of list). If list is (), last returns ().

If n is zero, the atom that terminates list is returned. If n is greater than or equal to the number of cons cells in list, the result is list.

 (last nil)  NIL
 (last '(1 2 3))  (3)
 (last '(1 2 . 3))  (2 . 3)
 (setq x (list 'a 'b 'c 'd))  (A B C D)
 (last x)  (D)
 (rplacd (last x) (list 'e 'f)) x  (A B C D E F)
 (last x)  (F)

 (last '(a b c))    (C)

 (last '(a b c) 0)  ()
 (last '(a b c) 1)  (C)
 (last '(a b c) 2)  (B C)
 (last '(a b c) 3)  (A B C)
 (last '(a b c) 4)  (A B C)

 (last '(a . b) 0)  B
 (last '(a . b) 1)  (A . B)
 (last '(a . b) 2)  (A . B)
Exceptional Situations:

The consequences are undefined if list is a circular list. Should signal an error of type type-error if n is not a non-negative integer.

See Also:

butlast, nth


The following code could be used to define last.

 (defun last (list &optional (n 1))
   (check-type n (integer 0))
   (do ((l list (cdr l))
        (r list)
        (i 0 (+ i 1)))
       ((atom l) r)
     (if (>= i n) (pop r))))